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More broadly, the findings here underscore the growing view that classroom engagement is at least as limited and valuable a resource as instructional time. With the advent of No Child Left Behind legislation, the vast majority of U.S. school administrators reduced or completely cut recess time and other breaks during the school day, with the primary motivation of providing more instructional time for standardized test preparation ( Solar Glide ShoesMens Running 7CuPxNrGeT
). Instructional time has been viewed by many administrators as the key, limited resource for improving academic achievement; consequently, the de facto approach to increasing student learning has been to free up instructional time by cutting school activities seen to be unhelpful to standardized test preparation—recess, physical education, art, music, theater, etc. Yet increasing the number of hours in the classroom does not translate to increasing the number of hours of student are attentively learning ( Gettinger and Seibert, 2002 ). Estimates suggest students spend 10–50% of their time at school unengaged and off-task ( Hollowood et al., 1994 ). Like pouring tea into an already full teapot, giving teachers more time to deliver standardized test content is of little value if the vessels are unable to receive. Thus, classroom engagement may in fact be the key, limited resource in academic achievement. Seen in this light, the net benefits of recess, art, music, theater, and physical education for subsequent classroom engagement may easily exceed the tradeoff in instructional time—even apart from their inherent value.

In our view, three tasks are pressing for future research: first, mapping the dose-response curve; second, assessing the net impact of lessons in nature for academic achievement; and third, establishing the generality of the effects here.

A map of the dose-response curve would be of great practical value. How “natural” does a landscape need to be to boost classroom engagement? If a small investment in vegetation outside a school can enable teachers to teach longer periods uninterrupted, such effects might ultimately translate to greater academic achievement in students, and more job satisfaction and less burnout among teachers. Similarly, studying larger doses than those here may reveal even larger benefits. The fact that the effect of each outdoor lesson does not diminish even as such lessons become routine suggests that adding more, or longer, lessons might yield proportionately large benefits. Perhaps instead of going out for lessons once a week, students might go out once or twice a day. Similarly, more prolonged or more intense doses of nature might be worth testing, such as is typical in “all-weather schools” or “outdoor schools” in Europe ( GivenchyLeather Derbies YJAdsWg
). The larger landscape of the school in this study included a fishing stream and 30 acres of woodlands and open space that might theoretically be resources for lessons in nature, but the teachers in this study were reluctant to sacrifice the necessary instructional time to walk to those areas. The findings here suggest that the benefits of such larger doses of nature might be well worth investigating.

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La Vanguardia
Carles Villalonga

La conciencia ecológica es cada día más grande en el ser humano. Hombres y mujeres, poco a poco, van tomando conciencia de que sus acciones tienen una repercusión directa en su entorno. Hay momentos en nuestro día a día, sin embargo, en los que, por desconocimiento o por simple pereza, olvidamos el medio ambiente por completo. Uno de estos patinazos rutinarios se produce demasiado a menudo en la cocina, porque ¿cuántos de nosotros reciclamos el aceite usado que nos sobra después de cocinar ?

La batería de excusas es muy variada: no hay un contenedor específico, se tiene que llevar el aceite al punto verde y me queda muy lejos, casi nunca frío nada y por poco aceite que uso tampoco es tan grave tirarlo por el desagüe, etc. Cualquier forma de convencernos nos parece buena, pero la realidad es que, tal y como se empeña a recordarnos la realidad, un litro de aceite puede contaminar 1.000 litros de agua.

¿Desconocimiento o pereza?

Dos tercios del aceite usado acaban en las alcantarillas

La evidencia es clara, y la conclusión sólo es una. Reciclar el aceite vegetal que sobra tras cocinar es una obligación medioambiental. Y, en realidad, tampoco comporta tanto esfuerzo.

De residuo a biodiesel

Desde la Agència de Residus de Catalunya (ACR) recuerdan que todo el aceite vegetal “debe llevarse al ONLY SHOES ONLSELINE Trainers black dzHEmdp4
” ya que, “una vez recogido se le aplica un tratamiento para separar las impurezas y se usa para la fabricación de biocombustibles”. En el caso de restaurantes y grandes proveedores, el reciclaje de este material “está más regulado” a través de “empresas autorizadas que recogen el aceite”, también destinado a la fabricación de biodiésel.

En toda España, se estima que dos tercios del aceite usado acaban en las alcantarillas, ocasionando problemas como atascos en tuberías, necesidad de un trabajo especial en las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales o aumento de las plagas urbanas. Se calcula que cada español genera al año unos cuatro litros de aceite vegetal usado, sumando en total unos 180 millones de litros de aceite vegetal usado cada año de media. Si dos tercios de este acaban en las alcantarillas, cerca de 120.000.000 de litros acaban en nuestros fregaderos.

All four phenomena that Laland and colleagues promote are ‘add-ons’ to the basic processes that produce evolutionary change: natural selection, drift, mutation, recombination and gene flow. None of these additions is essential for evolution, but they can alter the process under certain circumstances. For this reason they are eminently worthy of study.

We invite Laland and colleagues to join us in a more expansive extension, rather than imagining divisions that do not exist. We appreciate their ideas as an important part of what evolutionary theory might become in the future. We, too, want an extended evolutionary synthesis, but for us, these words are lowercase because this is how our field has always advanced 16 .

The best way to elevate the prominence of genuinely interesting phenomena such as phenotypic plasticity, inclusive inheritance, niche construction and developmental bias (and many, many others) is to strengthen the evidence for their importance.

Before claiming that earthworms “have played a more important part in the history of the world than most persons would at first suppose” 11 , Darwin collected more than 40years of data. Even then, he published only for fear that he would soon be “joining them” 17 .

(MIT Press, 2010).

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(Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).

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(Oxford Univ. Press, 2003).

, (Princeton Univ. Press, 2003).

(MIT Press, 2014).

(Princeton Univ. Press, 2013).

(Roberts, 2013).

(John Murray, 1881).

(Oxford Univ. Press, 2001).


in (Pigliucci, M. Müller, G. B. eds) – (MIT Press, 2010).

479 (Jonathan Cape, 2003).


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